1. The pun ‘On The Edge’ is used effectively to summarise the events in the chapter as it means that they are in a very dangerous position and it can end up fatal from one wrong step for example so if they did the tiniest of things wrong it could get them killed. In Joe and Simon’s situation they have many close encounters with death but luckily do things just right and survive one of the situations is when the Ridgeline collapses and Simon falls with it but luckily Joe catches him so if anything had been different they could have both fallen down and died so they are very much ‘on the edge’.
2. Foreshadowing is used in chapter 4 to create tension for the readers. Foreshadowing is when an author puts in hints or indicators about what will happen later on in the text in this case a catastrophe or problem that happens later on. Joe Simpson uses foreshadowing to create tension as he adds in small indicators like the section of text that talks about a bad situation that Simon was once in, when two Japanese climbers fall of a ridge and die. That piece of text makes the reader feel that it will happen to them so they predict the problem and become scared that it will come true creating tension within them. Another technique to create tension is Emotive words. Joe chooses specific words for example void, difficulties and plummeting etc. to create tension as the readers then relate the words back to situations they were in like what Joe and Simon are in which then makes them feel the emotions they had then, which in this chapter relates back to tense situations making the readers tense up.